Maslach Burnout Inventory: factor structures and norms for USA pharmacists

Psychol Rep. 1989 Jun;64(3 Pt 2):1059-63. doi: 10.2466/pr0.1989.64.3c.1059.


This study was conducted to establish normative data as well as evaluate the construct validity and reliability of the three subscales of the Maslach Burnout Inventory when given to a national sample of USA licensed practicing pharmacists. Data were subjected to principal factors analysis with iteration and a varimax rotation to obtain a three-factor solution. Visual analysis and statistical comparison provided empirical support for the presence of the hypothesized (a priori) constructs of Emotional Exhaustion, Depersonalization, and Lack of Personal Accomplishment. Internal consistency of the derived subscales, as measured by Cronbach's alpha coefficient, were comparable with previous data. Pharmacists' subscale scores were significantly lower than those obtained in studies of the helping professions.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Burnout, Professional / epidemiology*
  • Factor Analysis, Statistical
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Personality Inventory*
  • Pharmacists / psychology*
  • Reference Values
  • Stress, Psychological / epidemiology*
  • United States