Aims: Pancreatic islet amyloid deposition is a characteristic feature of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP) is co-secreted with insulin, but its secretion profile and relationship to insulin and C-peptide in response to glucose and non-glucose stimuli has not been clearly defined.
Methods: Forty subjects (13 NGT, 12 IGT and 15 T2DM) participated in an OGTT and two-step hyperglycemic (225 and 400 mg/dl) clamp (80 min/step) followed by an IV arginine bolus. Acute insulin (AIR), C-peptide (ACPR) and IAPP (AIAR) responses during each hyperglycemic step and following arginine (AIRArg) were assessed.
Results: AIR and ACPR during both hyperglycemic steps and after arginine progressively decreased from NGT to IGT to T2DM. Fasting IAPP concentrations were higher in T2DM compared to NGT and IGT subjects. The acute IAPP0-10 was markedly decreased only in T2DM, while the acute IAPP80-90 response during the second step (80-160 min) of hyperglycemic clamp and in response to arginine was markedly impaired in both IGT and T2DM. The ratio of IAPP/C-peptide during the first (225 mg/dl) and second step (400 mg/dl), and in response to arginine, was decreased in T2DM versus both NGT and IGT (p < 0.01). The acute IAPP0-10 correlated with ACPR0-10 (r = 0.665, p < 0.001) and AIR0-10 (r = 0.543, p < 0.001).
Conclusions: Basal IAPP secretion is higher in T2DM and IGT versus NGT but is reduced in response to hyperglycemia and arginine. The IAPP/C-peptide ratio is reduced with prolonged and more severe hyperglycemia in T2DM individuals.
Clinical trial registration: NCT00845182.
Keywords: Amylin; Hyperglycemic clamp; Insulin secretion.