Clinical Outcomes of Zirconia Dental Implants: A Systematic Review

J Dent Res. 2017 Jan;96(1):38-46. doi: 10.1177/0022034516664043. Epub 2016 Oct 1.


To determine the survival rate and marginal bone loss (MBL) of zirconia dental implants restored with single crowns or fixed dental prostheses. An electronic search was conducted up to November 2015 (without any restriction regarding the publication time) through the databases MEDLINE (PubMed), Cochrane Library, and EMBASE to identify randomized controlled clinical trials and prospective clinical trials including >15 patients. Primary outcomes were survival rate and MBL. Furthermore, the influence of several covariates on MBL was evaluated. Qualitative assessment and statistical analyses were performed. This review was conducted according to preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses (PRISMA) guidelines for systematic reviews. With the applied search strategy, 4,196 titles could be identified. After a screening procedure, 2 randomized controlled clinical trials and 7 prospective clinical trials remained for analyses. In these trials, a total of 326 patients received 398 implants. The follow-up ranged from 12 to 60 mo. Implant loss was mostly reported within the first year, especially within the healing period. Thereafter, nearly constant survival curves could be observed. Therefore, separate meta-analyses were performed for the first and subsequent years, resulting in an implant survival rate of 95.6% (95% confidence interval: 93.3% to 97.9%) after 12 mo and, thereafter, an expected decrease of 0.05% per year (0.25% after 5 y). Additionally, a meta-analysis was conducted for the mean MBL after 12 mo, resulting in 0.79 mm (95% confidence interval: 0.73 to 0.86 mm). Implant bulk material and design, restoration type, and the application of minor augmentation procedures during surgery, as well as the modes of temporization and loading, had no statistically significant influence on MBL. The short-term cumulative survival rates and the MBL of zirconia implants in the presented systematic review are promising. However, additional data are still needed to confirm the long-term predictability of these implants.

Keywords: bone resorption; ceramics; implant supported dental prosthesis; meta-analysis; osseointegration; zirconium dioxide.

Publication types

  • Review
  • Systematic Review

MeSH terms

  • Dental Implants* / adverse effects
  • Dental Prosthesis, Implant-Supported / adverse effects
  • Dental Prosthesis, Implant-Supported / methods
  • Dental Restoration Failure
  • Humans
  • Treatment Outcome
  • Zirconium / adverse effects
  • Zirconium / therapeutic use*


  • Dental Implants
  • Zirconium
  • zirconium oxide