Impact of the Spanish smoking legislations in the adoption of smoke-free rules at home: a longitudinal study in Barcelona (Spain)

Tob Control. 2016 Sep;26(5):557-562. doi: 10.1136/tobaccocontrol-2016-053114. Epub 2016 Sep 13.


Objective: To assess the impact of two Spanish smoking legislations in the adoption of voluntary smoke-free-homes rules in Spain.

Methods: This is a longitudinal study, before and after the implementation of two national smoking bans (in 2005 and 2010), in a representative sample (n=1245) of non-institutionalised adults (≥16 years) from Barcelona (Spain) surveyed in 2004-2005 and followed up in 2013-2014. The final sample analysed was 736 individuals (400 women and 336 men). We defined smoking rules in the houses as complete (when smoking was not allowed in the household), partial (when smoking was allowed in some places inside the house) or absent (when smoking was allowed everywhere). We calculated relative changes in the prevalence of smoking rules in homes before and after 2 national smoking legislations by means of prevalence ratios (PRs) and their 95% CIs.

Results: The households with voluntary smoke-free rules (complete or partial) relatively increased 31% after Spanish smoking bans (from 55.6% to 72.6%, p<0.001). The houses with complete rules relatively increased 57% (from 23.9% to 37.6%, p<0.001) whereas the houses with partial rules increased 11% (from 31.7% to 35.0%, p=0.148). The increase of any type of rules (complete and partial) was statistically significantly independent of sex (PR between 1.29 and 1.33), age (PR between 1.24 and 1.33), educational level (PR between 1.19 and 1.47) and minimum age in house (PR between 1.12 and 1.40). However, this increase was statistically and significantly higher only among never smokers (PR=1.46) at baseline.

Conclusions: The implementation of the smoke-free regulations in public and work places in Spain was associated with an increasing of voluntary adoption of smoke-free rules in homes. According to our data, the Spanish smoking bans did not shift the tobacco consumption from public and work places to private places (homes).

Keywords: Prevention; Public policy; Secondhand smoke.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Female
  • Housing*
  • Humans
  • Longitudinal Studies
  • Male
  • Smoke
  • Smoke-Free Policy*
  • Smoking
  • Smoking Prevention
  • Spain
  • Tobacco Smoke Pollution / prevention & control*
  • Workplace


  • Smoke
  • Tobacco Smoke Pollution