Perspectives in Pediatric Pathology, Chapter 25. Testicular and Paratesticular Tumors in the Pediatric Age Group

Pediatr Dev Pathol. 2016 Nov/Dec;19(6):471-492. doi: 10.2350/16-09-1829-PER.1. Epub 2016 Sep 14.


Testicular tumors in the prepubertal age are relatively rare, representing only 9.4% of the total testicular and paratesticular specimens from a 20-year review performed at a large pediatric hospital [ 1 ]. They account for 1% to 2% of all solid tumors in the pediatric age group, with an annual incidence between 0.5/100 000 and 2/100 000 boys according to Coppes et al [ 2 ] and data from the Prepubertal Testicular Tumor Registry [ 3 ]. Similar to other neoplasms afflicting children, a bimodal age distribution is observed. The first peak is between birth and 3 years of age, and a second one occurs at the onset of puberty, extending to the fourth decade. Reports on their frequency vary because some investigators include the adolescent period, while others do not [ 4 ]. The vast majority of testicular tumors are germ cell neoplasms, accounting for 95% across all ages [ 5 ]. In children, germ cell tumors also predominate, representing 71% of all testicular neoplasms. These include yolk sac tumors (49%), teratomas (13%), seminomas and mixed germ cell tumors (9%), and sex-cord stromal tumors (29%). Malignant potential is significantly lower (less than 70%) in the pediatric age group compared to adults (90%) [ 6 ]. According to Pohl et al, 74% of prepubertal testicular tumors are benign [ 7 ].

Keywords: germ cell tumor; paratesticular tumor; sex cord-stromal tumor; teratoma; testicular tumor; yolk sac tumor.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Child
  • Child, Preschool
  • Humans
  • Incidence
  • Male
  • Testicular Neoplasms / epidemiology
  • Testicular Neoplasms / pathology*