Progress of Medical School Musculoskeletal Education in the 21st Century

J Am Acad Orthop Surg. 2016 Nov;24(11):762-768. doi: 10.5435/JAAOS-D-15-00577.


The prevalence and cost of musculoskeletal diseases have increased dramatically over the last several decades, with more than half of US adults currently affected by a musculoskeletal condition. In response to this development, multiple institutions began reassessing the depth and effectiveness of their musculoskeletal education curriculum. After reporting a deficiency in required preclinical coursework, medical schools began implementing new and varied musculoskeletal programs. These changes have met with mixed success, as demonstrated by scores on competency examinations. To address discrepancies in knowledge and confidence levels and to ensure that physicians are equipped to manage musculoskeletal diseases in the 21st century, efforts to improve medical school education should continue.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Clinical Clerkship
  • Clinical Competence
  • Curriculum
  • Education, Medical / standards*
  • Education, Medical / statistics & numerical data
  • Humans
  • Musculoskeletal Diseases / diagnosis*
  • Musculoskeletal Diseases / therapy*
  • Orthopedics / education*
  • Program Development*
  • Schools, Medical / organization & administration*
  • Schools, Medical / statistics & numerical data
  • Self Efficacy