Periodontal and other oral manifestations of immunodeficiency diseases

Oral Dis. 2017 Oct;23(7):866-888. doi: 10.1111/odi.12584. Epub 2016 Oct 10.


The list of immunodeficiency diseases grows each year as novel disorders are discovered, classified, and sometimes reclassified due to our ever-increasing knowledge of immune system function. Although the number of patients with secondary immunodeficiencies (SIDs) greatly exceeds those with primary immunodeficiencies (PIDs), the prevalence of both appears to be on the rise probably because of scientific breakthroughs that facilitate earlier and more accurate diagnosis. Primary immunodeficiencies in adults are not as rare as once thought. Globally, the main causes of secondary immunodeficiency are HIV infection and nutritional insufficiencies. Persons with acquired immune disorders such as AIDS caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are now living long and fulfilling lives as a result of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Irrespective of whether the patient's immune-deficient state is a consequence of a genetic defect or is secondary in nature, dental and medical practitioners must be aware of the constant potential for infections and/or expressions of autoimmunity in these individuals. The purpose of this review was to study the most common conditions resulting from primary and secondary immunodeficiency states, how they are classified, and the detrimental manifestations of these disorders on the periodontal and oral tissues.

Keywords: autoimmune disease; immune defects; immunodeficiency; oral infection; pathology; periodontium.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / complications
  • Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / drug therapy
  • Humans
  • Immunologic Deficiency Syndromes / complications*
  • Immunologic Deficiency Syndromes / genetics
  • Immunologic Deficiency Syndromes / therapy*
  • Malnutrition / complications
  • Malnutrition / therapy
  • Mouth Diseases / immunology*
  • Periodontal Diseases / immunology