The Effect of Cold Showering on Health and Work: A Randomized Controlled Trial

PLoS One. 2016 Sep 15;11(9):e0161749. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0161749. eCollection 2016.

Abstract

Purpose: The aim of this study was to determine the cumulative effect of a routine (hot-to-) cold shower on sickness, quality of life and work productivity.

Methods: Between January and March 2015, 3018 participants between 18 and 65 years without severe comorbidity and no routine experience of cold showering were randomized (1:1:1:1) to a (hot-to-) cold shower for 30, 60, 90 seconds or a control group during 30 consecutive days followed by 60 days of showering cold at their own discretion for the intervention groups. The primary outcome was illness days and related sickness absence from work. Secondary outcomes were quality of life, work productivity, anxiety, thermal sensation and adverse reactions.

Results: 79% of participants in the interventions groups completed the 30 consecutive days protocol. A negative binomial regression model showed a 29% reduction in sickness absence for (hot-to-) cold shower regimen compared to the control group (incident rate ratio: 0.71, P = 0.003). For illness days there was no significant group effect. No related serious advents events were reported.

Conclusion: A routine (hot-to-) cold shower resulted in a statistical reduction of self-reported sickness absence but not illness days in adults without severe comorbidity.

Trial registration: Netherlands National Trial Register NTR5183.

Publication types

  • Randomized Controlled Trial

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Baths*
  • Cold Temperature*
  • Employment*
  • Female
  • Health Status*
  • Hot Temperature*
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged

Grant support

The authors received no specific funding for this work. One author [BCJMvdH] was employed by a commercial company [Achmea] but did not receive any support in either time or salary by his employer. All work was performed in the author’s spare time. The commercial company did not have any role in the study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript. The specific roles of these authors are articulated in the ‘author contributions’ section.