Prediction Error Representation in Individuals With Generalized Anxiety Disorder During Passive Avoidance

Am J Psychiatry. 2017 Feb 1;174(2):110-117. doi: 10.1176/appi.ajp.2016.15111410. Epub 2016 Sep 15.


Objective: Deficits in reinforcement-based decision making have been reported in generalized anxiety disorder. However, the pathophysiology of these deficits is largely unknown; published studies have mainly examined adolescents, and the integrity of core functional processes underpinning decision making remains undetermined. In particular, it is unclear whether the representation of reinforcement prediction error (PE) (the difference between received and expected reinforcement) is disrupted in generalized anxiety disorder. This study addresses these issues in adults with the disorder.

Method: Forty-six unmedicated individuals with generalized anxiety disorder and 32 healthy comparison subjects group-matched on IQ, gender, and age performed a passive avoidance task while undergoing functional MRI. Data analyses were performed using a computational modeling approach.

Results: Behaviorally, individuals with generalized anxiety disorder showed impaired reinforcement-based decision making. Imaging results revealed that during feedback, individuals with generalized anxiety disorder relative to healthy subjects showed a reduced correlation between PE and activity within the ventromedial prefrontal cortex, ventral striatum, and other structures implicated in decision making. In addition, individuals with generalized anxiety disorder relative to healthy participants showed a reduced correlation between punishment PEs, but not reward PEs, and activity within the left and right lentiform nucleus/putamen.

Conclusions: This is the first study to identify computational impairments during decision making in generalized anxiety disorder. PE signaling is significantly disrupted in individuals with the disorder and may lead to their decision-making deficits and excessive worry about everyday problems by disrupting the online updating ("reality check") of the current relationship between the expected values of current response options and the actual received rewards and punishments.

Keywords: Decision-Making; Generalized Anxiety Disorder; Prediction Error; Punishment; Reward; Striatum.

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Anxiety Disorders / diagnosis
  • Anxiety Disorders / physiopathology*
  • Anxiety Disorders / psychology*
  • Avoidance Learning / physiology*
  • Decision Making / physiology*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Image Enhancement
  • Magnetic Resonance Imaging*
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Oxygen / blood
  • Patient-Specific Modeling
  • Pattern Recognition, Visual / physiology
  • Prefrontal Cortex / physiology*
  • Reference Values
  • Reinforcement, Psychology*
  • Set, Psychology*
  • Young Adult


  • Oxygen