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. 2017 Feb;1861(2):477-484.
doi: 10.1016/j.bbagen.2016.09.010. Epub 2016 Sep 12.

Anethole Potentiates Dodecanol's Fungicidal Activity by Reducing PDR5 Expression in Budding Yeast

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Anethole Potentiates Dodecanol's Fungicidal Activity by Reducing PDR5 Expression in Budding Yeast

Ken-Ichi Fujita et al. Biochim Biophys Acta Gen Subj. .

Abstract

Background: trans-Anethole (anethole), a major component of anise oil, has a broad antimicrobial spectrum and a weaker antimicrobial potency than other available antibiotics. When combined with polygodial, nagilactone E, and n-dodecanol, anethole has been shown to exhibit synergistic antifungal activity against a budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and a human opportunistic pathogenic yeast, Candida albicans. However, the mechanism underlying this synergistic effect of anethole has not been characterized.

Methods: We studied this mechanism using dodecanol-treated S. cerevisiae cells and focusing on genes related to multidrug efflux.

Results: Although dodecanol transiently reduced the number of colony forming units, this recovered to levels similar to those of untreated cells with continued incubation beyond 24h. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis revealed overexpression of an ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter gene, PDR5, in addition to a slight increase in PDR11, PDR12, and PDR15 transcriptions in dodecanol-treated cells. In the presence of anethole, these effects were attenuated and the fungicidal activity of dodecanol was extended. Dodecanol showed longer lasting fungicidal activity against a Δpdr5. In addition, Δpdr3 and Δlge1, lack transcription factors of PDR5 and PDR3, were partly and completely susceptible to dodecanol, respectively. Furthermore, combination of anethole with fluconazole was also found to exhibit synergy on C. albicans.

Conclusions: These results indicated that although anethole reduced the transcription of several transporters, PDR5 expression was particularly relevant to dodecanol efflux.

General significance: Anethole is expected to be a promising candidate drug for the inhibition of efflux by reducing the transcription of several ABC transporters.

Keywords: Anethole; Antifungal; Dodecanol; Multidrug resistance; PDR5; S. cerevisiae.

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