Subtle Motor Findings During Recovery from Pediatric Traumatic Brain Injury: A Preliminary Report

J Mot Behav. Jan-Feb 2017;49(1):20-26. doi: 10.1080/00222895.2016.1204267. Epub 2016 Sep 16.


Pediatric traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a heterogeneous condition, varying in both severity and sequelae. The long-term motor deficits following severe TBI requiring inpatient rehabilitation are better established than those following milder forms of TBI. The authors examined motor performance 2 and 12 months postinjury in children without overt motor impairment using standard measures of upper limb function and the Physical and Neurological Examination for Subtle Signs (PANESS). The PANESS was sensitive to differences between children with TBI and uninjured children as well as to changes in children with TBI over time. These data suggest that subtle motor deficits are present after milder forms of TBI and, particularly those related to balance and gait, may persist even 12 months postinjury.

Keywords: motor; pediatric; rehabilitation; traumatic brain injury.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Brain Injuries, Traumatic / complications
  • Brain Injuries, Traumatic / diagnosis
  • Brain Injuries, Traumatic / physiopathology*
  • Case-Control Studies
  • Child
  • Disease Progression
  • Female
  • Gait / physiology
  • Humans
  • Longitudinal Studies
  • Male
  • Motor Disorders / complications
  • Motor Disorders / diagnosis
  • Motor Disorders / physiopathology*
  • Postural Balance / physiology
  • Recovery of Function / physiology*
  • Severity of Illness Index
  • Time Factors