Previous studies investigated the impacts of a partial nephrectomy (PN) or radical nephrectomy (RN) on cardiovascular events and death. However, the association between the type of nephrectomy (PN vs. RN) and cardiovascular disease is still equivocal. This retrospective cohort study aimed to compare the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) between patients who underwent a PN and those who underwent an RN. We used data from the Taiwan Longitudinal Health Insurance Database 2005. In total, 60 patients who underwent a PN and 545 patients who underwent an RN were included. Each patient was tracked for 1-, 2-, 3-, and 5-year periods to identify those who were subsequently diagnosed with CHD. Cox proportional hazard regression analyses were used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) for CHD during 1-, 2-, 3-, and 5-year follow-up periods between these two cohorts. For the 1-year follow-up period, the adjusted HR was 0.39 (95% CI: 0.05~2.90, p = 0.355) for patients who underwent a PN compared to those who underwent an RN. Additionally, the adjusted HRs of CHD in patients who underwent a PN for 2-, 3- and 5-year follow-up periods were 1.40 (95% CI: 0.62~3.16, p = 0.417), 1.09 (95% CI: 0.52~2.31, p = 0.814), and 1.02 (95% CI: 0.48~2.18, p = 0.961), respectively, compared to those who underwent an RN. We concluded that there was no significant difference in the risk of CHD between patients who underwent a PN and those who underwent an RN.