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Review
. 2016 Oct;27(4):397-407.
doi: 10.1016/j.nec.2016.06.002. Epub 2016 Aug 10.

Pathophysiology of Traumatic Brain Injury

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Review

Pathophysiology of Traumatic Brain Injury

Melissa J McGinn et al. Neurosurg Clin N Am. .

Abstract

This article provides a concise overview, at the structural and functional level, of those changes evoked by traumatic brain injury across the spectrum of the disease. Using data derived from animals and humans, the pathogenesis of focal versus diffuse brain damage is presented for consideration of its overall implications for morbidity. Emphasis is placed on contusion and its potential expansion in concert with diffuse changes primarily assessed at the axonal level. Concomitant involvement of neuroexcitation and its role in global and focal metabolic changes is considered. Lastly, the influence of premorbid factors including age, genetics, and socioeconomic background is discussed.

Keywords: Altered neuronal and vascular responses; Diffuse axonal injury; Focal and diffuse damage; Influence of comorbid factors; Neuronal circuit disruption.

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