The emergence of drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB) compromises global tuberculosis control. The incidence of multidrug-resistant strains (MDR) defined as resistant to the two main antituberculosis drugs, rifampicin and isoniazid, was raised in the 1990s. Ten percent of these strains have developed additional resistance to the main second-line antituberculosis drugs: fluoroquinolones and aminoglycosides. These strains are defined as extensively drug-resistant (XDR). The prognosis of MDR-TB and XDR-TB is poor due to limited therapeutic resources. However, many new innovations may lead to a radical change in this field. Genotypic testing is now able to detect drug resistance within a few hours. Genotypic diagnosis of rifampicin resistance is now recommended in France for each new case of TB. The currently recommended treatment for MDR-TB is long (18-24 months) and toxic. It is, however, on the verge of being replaced by a 9-month treatment. New antituberculosis drugs such as bedaquiline and delamanid should also improve the prognosis of MDR-TB and XDR-TB.
Keywords: Bedaquiline; Bédaquiline; Delamanid; Extensively drug resistance; Multidrug resistance; Multirésistance; Tuberculose; Tuberculosis; Ultrarésistance.
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