Background: Cytoreductive surgery (CS) with hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) for peritoneal metastases can alleviate symptoms and prolong survival at the expense of morbidity and quality of life (QoL). This study aimed to monitor QoL and outcomes before and after HIPEC.
Methods: A prospective QoL trial of patients who underwent HIPEC for peritoneal metastases from 2000 to 2015 was conducted. The patients completed the Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36), the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy + Colon Subscale (FACT-C), the Brief Pain Inventory, the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale, and the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status at baseline, then 3, 6, 12, and 24 months after HIPEC. The trial outcome index (TOI) was analyzed. Proportional hazards modeled the effect of baseline QoL on survival.
Results: The 598 patients (53.8 % female) in the study had a mean age of 53.3 years. The overall 1-year survival rate was 76.8 %, and the median survival period was 2.9 years. The findings showed a minor morbidity rate of 29.3 %, a major morbidity rate of 21.7 %, and a 30-day mortality rate of 3.5 %. The BPI (p < 0.0001) and worst pain (p = 0.004) increased at 3 months but returned to baseline at 6 months. After CS + HIPEC, FACT-C emotional well-being, SF-36 mental component score, and emotional health improved (all p < 0.001). Higher baseline FACT-General (hazard ratio [HR], 0.92; 95 % confidence interval [CI], 0.09-0.96), FACT-C (HR, 0.73; 95 % CI 0.65-0.83), physical well-being (HR, 0.71; 95 % CI 0.64-0.78), TOI (HR, 0.87; 95 % CI 0.84-0.91), and SF-36 vitality (HR, 0.88; 95 % CI 0.83-0.92) were associated with improved survival (all p < 0.001). Higher baseline BPI (HR, 1.1; 95 % CI 1.05-1.14; p < 0.0001), worst pain (HR, 1.06; 95 % CI 1.01-1.10; p = 0.01), and ECOG (HR, 1.74; 95 % CI 1.50-2.01; p < 0.0001) were associated with worse survival.
Conclusions: Although HIPEC is associated with morbidity and detriments to QoL, recovery with good overall QoL typically occurs at or before 6 months. Baseline QoL is associated with morbidity, mortality, and survival after HIPEC.