Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is the most common acute leukemia in adults. The pathophysiology of this disease is just beginning to be understood at the cellular and molecular level, and currently cytogenetic markers are the most important for risk stratification and treatment of AML patients. However, with the advent of new technologies, the detection of other molecular markers such as point mutations and characterization of epigenetic and proteomic profiles, have begun to play an important role in how the disease is approached. Recent evidence shows that the identification of new AML biomarkers contributes to a better understanding of the molecular basis of the disease, is significantly useful in screening, diagnosis, prognosis and monitoring of AML, as well as the possibility of predicting each individual's response to treatment. This review summarizes the most relevant molecular (genetic, epigenetic, and protein) biomarkers associated with acute myeloid leukemia and discusses their clinical importance in terms of risk prediction, diagnosis and prognosis.
Keywords: Acute myeloid leukemia; Biomarkers; DNA methylation; Gene mutations; Protein expression.
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