Catastrophic antiphospholipid syndrome (CAPS): Descriptive analysis of 500 patients from the International CAPS Registry

Autoimmun Rev. 2016 Dec;15(12):1120-1124. doi: 10.1016/j.autrev.2016.09.010. Epub 2016 Sep 15.

Abstract

Objective: To analyze the clinical and immunologic manifestations of patients with catastrophic antiphospholipid syndrome (CAPS) from the "CAPS Registry".

Methods: The demographic, clinical and serological features of 500 patients included in the website-based "CAPS Registry" were analyzed. Frequency distribution and measures of central tendency were used to describe the cohort. Comparison between groups regarding qualitative variables was undertaken by chi-square or Fisher exact test while T-test for independent variables was used to compare groups regarding continuous variables.

Results: 500 patients (female: 343 [69%]; mean age 38±17) accounting for 522 episodes of CAPS were included in the analysis. Forty percent of patients had an associated autoimmune disease, mainly systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) (75%). The majority of CAPS episodes were triggered by a precipitating factor (65%), mostly infections (49%). Clinically, CAPS was characterized by several organ involvement affecting kidneys (73%), lungs (60%), brain (56%), heart (50%), and skin (47%). Lupus anticoagulant, IgG anticardiolipin and IgG anti-β2-glycprotein antibodies were the most often implicated antiphospholipid antibodies (83%, 81% and 78% respectively). Mortality accounted for 37% of episodes of CAPS. Several clinical differences could be observed based on the age of presentation and its association to SLE. Those cases triggered by a malignancy tended to occur in older patients, while CAPS episodes in young patients were associated with an infectious trigger and peripheral vessels involvement. Additionally, CAPS associated with SLE were more likely to have severe cardiac and brain involvement leading to a higher mortality (48%).

Conclusion: Although the presentation of CAPS is characterized by multiorgan thrombosis and failure, clinical differences among patients exist based on age and underlying chronic diseases, e.g. malignancy and SLE.

Keywords: Anticardiolipin; Antiphospholipid; Antiphospholipid antibodies; Antiphospholipid syndrome; Catastrophic antiphospholipid syndrome; Lupus anticoagulant.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Antibodies, Antiphospholipid / immunology*
  • Antiphospholipid Syndrome / immunology*
  • Humans
  • Lupus Coagulation Inhibitor / immunology*
  • Registries

Substances

  • Antibodies, Antiphospholipid
  • Lupus Coagulation Inhibitor