Background & aims: Vitamin K has been associated with various health outcomes, including non-fatal cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and cancer. However, little is known about the association between vitamin K intake and all-cause and cause specific mortality. This study aims to investigate the association between vitamin K intake and all-cause and cause-specific mortality.
Methods: This prospective cohort study included 33,289 participants from the EPIC-NL cohort, aged 20-70 years at baseline and recruited between 1993 and 1997. Dietary intake was assessed at baseline with a validated food frequency questionnaire and intakes of phylloquinone, and total, short chain and long chain menaquinones were calculated. Information on vital status and causes of death was obtained through linkage to several registries. The association between the different forms of vitamin K intake and mortality was assessed with Cox proportional hazards, adjusted for risk factors for chronic diseases and nutrient intake.
Results: During a mean follow-up of 16.8 years, 2863 deaths occurred, including 625 from CVD (256 from coronary heart disease (CHD)), 1346 from cancer and 892 from other causes. After multivariable adjustment, phylloquinone and menaquinones were not associated with all-cause mortality with hazard ratios for the upper vs. the lowest quartile of intake of 1.04 (0.92;1.17) and 0.94 (0.82;1.07) respectively. Neither phylloquinone intake nor menaquinone intake was associated with risk of CVD mortality. Higher intake of long chain menaquinones was borderline significantly associated (ptrend = 0.06) with lower CHD mortality with a HR10μg of 0.86 (0.74;1.00). None of the forms of vitamin K intake were associated with cancer mortality or mortality from other causes.
Conclusions: Vitamin K intake was not associated with all-cause mortality, cancer mortality and mortality from other causes.
Keywords: Cancer; Cardiovascular disease; Menaquinones; Mortality; Phylloquinone; Vitamin K.
Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.