Advances in stem cell research have allowed the development of 3-dimensional (3D) primary cell cultures termed organoid cultures, as they closely mimic the in vivo organization of different cell lineages. Bridging the gap between 2-dimensional (2D) monotypic cancer cell lines and whole organisms, organoids are now widely applied to model development and disease. Organoids hold immense promise for addressing novel questions in host-microbe interactions, infectious diseases and the resulting inflammatory conditions. Researchers have started to use organoids for modeling infection with pathogens, such as Helicobacter pylori or Salmonella enteritica, gut-microbiota interactions and inflammatory bowel disease. Future studies will broaden the spectrum of microbes used and continue to establish organoids as a standard model for human host-microbial interactions. Moreover, they will increasingly exploit the unique advantages of organoids, for example to address patient-specific responses to microbes.
Keywords: Gastrointestinal disease; Helicobacter; Inflammatory bowel disease; Microbiota; Norovirus; Organoid culture; Rotavirus; Salmonella.
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