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Novel Solvent-free Perovskite Deposition in Fabrication of Normal and Inverted Architectures of Perovskite Solar Cells

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Novel Solvent-free Perovskite Deposition in Fabrication of Normal and Inverted Architectures of Perovskite Solar Cells

Bahram Abdollahi Nejand et al. Sci Rep.

Abstract

We introduced a new approach to deposit perovskite layer with no need for dissolving perovskite precursors. Deposition of Solution-free perovskite (SFP) layer is a key method for deposition of perovskite layer on the hole or electron transport layers that are strongly sensitive to perovskite precursors. Using deposition of SFP layer in the perovskite solar cells would extend possibility of using many electron and hole transport materials in both normal and invert architectures of perovskite solar cells. In the present work, we synthesized crystalline perovskite powder followed by successful deposition on TiO2 and cuprous iodide as the non-sensitve and sensitive charge transport layers to PbI2 and CH3NH3I solution in DMF. The post compressing step enhanced the efficiency of the devices by increasing the interface area between perovskite and charge transport layers. The 9.07% and 7.71% cell efficiencies of the device prepared by SFP layer was achieved in respective normal (using TiO2 as a deposition substrate) and inverted structure (using CuI as deposition substrate) of perovskite solar cell. This method can be efficient in large-scale and low cost fabrication of new generation perovskite solar cells.

Figures

Figure 1
Figure 1
Schematic of device architectures and energy band diagrams of FTO/TiO2/SFP/spiro-OMeTAD/Au (a) and FTO/CuI/SFP/PCBM/Al (b).
Figure 2
Figure 2
Prepared SFP suspension (a), deposited SFP on the TiO2 at different spray passes (b), conventional one step spin coating of perovskite (route 1) and deposited SFP on CuI at spray passes of 20 (route 2) (c), and XRD patterns of bare CuI and CuI/SFP layers (d), schematic of synthesizing and deposition process of SFP layer (e), and size distribution of the perovskite particles before and after ball milling for 6 hours at 250 rpm monitored by DLS with the number averaged (f).
Figure 3
Figure 3
Top and cross sectional FE-SEM images of SFP layer by 10 spray passes (a,b,e,f) and hot compressed SFP layer (c,d,g,h).
Figure 4
Figure 4
Schematic compression mechanism of SFP by a smooth Teflon compressing jaw (a) and XRD patterns of SFP before and after compressing (b).
Figure 5
Figure 5
J-V curves measured at AM1.5G solar illumination for devices prepared with normal architecture of FTO/TiO2/SFP/spiro-OMeTAD/Au (a) and inverted architecture of FTO/CuI/SFP/PCBM/Al (b); the photovoltage decay analysis for device structure of FTO/TiO2/SFP/spiro-OMeTAD/Au (c); schematic of charge transferring and recombination states in SFP based solar cells (d), and Nyquist plots of EIS measurements under dark condition with a 0.8 V bias voltage (e).
Figure 6
Figure 6. Spray coating passes dependence of SFP layer on device performance parameters.
Figure 7
Figure 7
FE-SEM images of SFP layer by 20 spray passes (a,b); hot compressed SFP layer (c,d); and cross sectional images of compressed SFP layer (e).
Figure 8
Figure 8
Compression pressures (a) and times (b) effect on perovskite thickness, PCE, and Voc in preparation of SFP solar cells.
Figure 9
Figure 9
J-V curves measured at AM1.G solar illumination for devices prepared with inverted architecture of FTO/CuI/SFP/PCBM/Al before and after compression of SFP layer (a) and EQE curve of inverted compressed perovskite solar cell (b).
Figure 10
Figure 10
J-V curves of devices prepared with SFP before (a) and after (b) compression in normal devise structure of FTO/TiO2/SFP/spiro-OMeTAD/Au for the scan directions of forward bias to short circuit (FB-SC) and short circuit to forward bias (SC-FB), and effect of different post annealing times of 0, 10, and 20 minutes at 130 °C on device hysteresis (c).
Figure 11
Figure 11
Absorbance spectra of SFP with and without compression compared to spin coated perovskite layer (a) and photoluminescence study of SFP with and without compression on glass, TiO2, and spiro-OMeTAD on SFP.

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