[Management of vascular anomalies in children]

Ann Chir Plast Esthet. 2016 Oct;61(5):480-497. doi: 10.1016/j.anplas.2016.06.015. Epub 2016 Sep 15.
[Article in French]


Vascular anomalies, which are broadly identified as "angiomas", are rare entities and often unknown by the medical sphere. They are divided in two different categories which carry different prognosis and management: "vascular tumors" and "vascular malformations". Their precise identification is crucial and involves a good knowledge of the biological classification published by Mulliken and Glowacki and that has recently been updated by the International Society for the Study of Vascular Anomalies (ISSVA). Vascular tumors are benign, common, inborn or not and most of the time disappear with growth. Vascular malformations are always congenital and growth with the child. They can involve type of vessels solely or combined with others. A rheologic differentiation between slow and fast flow malformations is essential in order to characterize the seriousness of the lesion. Frequently, their diagnosis is clinically established and the anamnesis is conducted to answer three questions that are the time of revelation of the lesion ("When?"), its aspect ("What?") and its evolution ("How?"). Further investigations are usually not required but a non-invasive imaging technique such as Doppler ultrasound could be useful if a doubt exists. Surgery is not mandatory and must always be well thought because its consequences might be disastrous. It must be left to cosmetic sequelae of these lesions or to lesions that are totally resectable without causing any unacceptable deformation.

Keywords: Angioma; Angiomes; Chirurgie; Malformations vasculaires; Surgery; Traitement; Treatment; Tumeurs vasculaires; Vascular malformations; Vascular tumors.

MeSH terms

  • Child
  • Granuloma, Pyogenic / surgery
  • Hemangioma / surgery
  • Humans
  • Plastic Surgery Procedures*
  • Vascular Malformations / surgery*
  • Vascular Neoplasms / surgery*