The epidemiology and outcomes of invasive Candida infections among organ transplant recipients in the United States: results of the Transplant-Associated Infection Surveillance Network (TRANSNET)

Transpl Infect Dis. 2016 Dec;18(6):921-931. doi: 10.1111/tid.12613. Epub 2016 Nov 14.


Background: Invasive candidiasis (IC) is a common cause of mortality in solid organ transplant recipients (OTRs), but knowledge of epidemiology in this population is limited.

Method: The present analysis describes data from 15 US centers that prospectively identified IC from nearly 17 000 OTRs. Analyses were undertaken to determine predictors of infection and mortality.

Results: A total of 639 cases of IC were identified. The most common species was Candida albicans (46.3%), followed by Candida glabrata (24.4%) and Candida parapsilosis (8.1%). In 68 cases >1 species was identified. The most common infection site was bloodstream (44%), followed by intra-abdominal (14%). The most frequently affected allograft groups were liver (41.1%) and kidney (35.3%). All-cause mortality at 90 days was 26.5% for all species and was highest for Candida tropicalis (44%) and C. parapsilosis (35.2%). Non-white race and female gender were more commonly associated with non-albicans species. A high rate of breakthrough IC was seen in patients receiving antifungal prophylaxis (39%). Factors associated with mortality include organ dysfunction, lung transplant, and treatment with a polyene antifungal. The only modifiable factor identified was choice of antifungal drug class based upon infecting Candida species.

Conclusion: These data highlight the common and distinct features of IC in OTRs.

Keywords: Candida; solid organ transplant.

Publication types

  • Multicenter Study

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Allografts / microbiology*
  • Antibiotic Prophylaxis / adverse effects*
  • Antifungal Agents / adverse effects*
  • Antifungal Agents / therapeutic use
  • Candida / isolation & purification*
  • Candidiasis, Invasive / epidemiology*
  • Candidiasis, Invasive / microbiology
  • Candidiasis, Invasive / mortality
  • Epidemiological Monitoring
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Organ Transplantation / adverse effects*
  • Organ Transplantation / mortality
  • Prospective Studies
  • Survival Analysis
  • Transplant Recipients
  • United States / epidemiology


  • Antifungal Agents