Blood oozing: A cause of life-threatening bleeding without overt source after transcatheter aortic valve replacement

Int J Cardiol. 2016 Dec 1;224:107-111. doi: 10.1016/j.ijcard.2016.09.009. Epub 2016 Sep 10.


Background: Post-procedure non-access site-related bleedings have a significant impact on mortality in patients treated by transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR). Notwithstanding, the source of these bleedings is frequently indeterminate, with potentially serious clinical implications related to lack of diagnosis and treatment.

Methods: Out of 513 TAVR performed between June 2007 and January 2016 in the Interventional Cardiology Laboratory of the Department of Cardiac, Thoracic and Vascular Sciences, University Hospital of Padua, we identified few proven cases of concealed bleeding after TAVR due to blood oozing.

Results: We report three cases of angiographically confirmed post-TAVR non-access bleedings related to spontaneous blood oozing, a life-threatening condition consisting of diffuse capillary hemorrhage developing from vessels not directly involved by the procedure. We hypothesize that spontaneous post-procedural blood oozing may account for a substantial proportion of non-overt, non-access site-related bleeding after TAVR.

Conclusion: The possibility of post-TAVR blood oozing is largely neglected in the literature, and comprehensive categorization of non-access site bleedings in current standardized endpoints of TAVR studies is missing. Early assessment with arterial and venous contrast phase angio-MDCT scans in case of post-TAVR unexplained and persistent anemia may allow diagnosis and treatment of this subtle condition.

Keywords: Interventional cardiology; Non-access site bleeding; Transcatheter aortic valve replacement.

Publication types

  • Case Reports

MeSH terms

  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Anticoagulants / administration & dosage
  • Anticoagulants / adverse effects
  • Aortic Valve Stenosis / diagnosis
  • Aortic Valve Stenosis / surgery*
  • Capillaries* / diagnostic imaging
  • Capillaries* / physiopathology
  • Computed Tomography Angiography / methods
  • Embolization, Therapeutic / methods*
  • Female
  • Heparin / administration & dosage
  • Heparin / adverse effects
  • Humans
  • Perioperative Care / methods
  • Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors / administration & dosage
  • Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors / adverse effects
  • Postoperative Hemorrhage* / diagnosis
  • Postoperative Hemorrhage* / etiology
  • Postoperative Hemorrhage* / physiopathology
  • Retroperitoneal Space / diagnostic imaging
  • Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement / adverse effects*
  • Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement / methods
  • Treatment Outcome


  • Anticoagulants
  • Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors
  • Heparin