Association of Dry Eye Tests With Extraocular Signs Among 3514 Participants in the Sjögren's Syndrome International Registry

Am J Ophthalmol. 2016 Dec;172:87-93. doi: 10.1016/j.ajo.2016.09.013. Epub 2016 Sep 16.

Abstract

Purpose: To identify a screening strategy for dry eye patients with a high likelihood of having Sjogren syndrome (SS) through the evaluation of the association of ocular surface tests with the extraocular signs used for the diagnosis of SS.

Design: Multicenter cross-sectional study.

Methods: The Sjogren's International Clinical Collaborative Alliance (SICCA) registry enrolled 3514 participants with SS or possible SS from 9 international academic sites. Ocular surface evaluation included Schirmer I testing, tear breakup time (TBUT), and staining of the cornea (0-6 points) and conjunctiva (0-6 points). Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to identify predictive factors for (1) histopathologic changes on labial salivary gland (LSG) biopsies (positive = focus score of ≥1 focus/4 mm2) and (2) positive anti-SSA/B serology.

Results: The adjusted odds of having a positive LSG biopsy were significantly higher among those with an abnormal Schirmer I test (adjusted OR = 1.26, 95% CI 1.05-1.51, P = .014) and positive conjunctival staining (for each additional unit of staining 1.46; 95% CI 1.39-1.53, P < .001) or corneal staining (for each additional unit of staining 1.14; 95% CI 1.08-1.21, P < .001). The odds of having a positive serology were significantly higher among those with an abnormal Schirmer I test (adjusted OR = 1.3; 95% CI 1.09-1.54, P = .004) and conjunctival staining (adjusted OR = 1.51; 95% CI 1.43-1.58, P < .001).

Conclusions: In addition to corneal staining, which was associated with a higher likelihood of having a positive LSG biopsy, conjunctival staining and abnormal Schirmer I testing are of critical importance to include when screening dry eye patients for possible SS, as they were associated with a higher likelihood of having a positive LSG biopsy and serology.

Publication types

  • Multicenter Study

MeSH terms

  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Dry Eye Syndromes / diagnosis*
  • Dry Eye Syndromes / epidemiology
  • Dry Eye Syndromes / etiology
  • Female
  • Global Health
  • Humans
  • Incidence
  • Male
  • Registries*
  • Severity of Illness Index
  • Sjogren's Syndrome / complications*
  • Tears / chemistry*
  • Young Adult