Effect of disinfection of drinking water with ozone or chlorine dioxide on survival of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts

Appl Environ Microbiol. 1989 Jun;55(6):1519-22. doi: 10.1128/aem.55.6.1519-1522.1989.


Demineralized water was seeded with controlled numbers of oocysts of Cryptosporidium parvum purified from fresh calf feces and subjected to different treatments with ozone or chlorine dioxide. The disinfectants were neutralized by sodium thiosulfate, and neonatal mice were inoculated intragastrically and sacrificed 7 days later for enumeration of oocyst production. Preliminary trials indicated that a minimum infection level of 1,000 oocysts (0.1-ml inoculum) per mouse was necessary to induce 100% infection. Treatment of water containing 10(4) oocysts per ml with 1.11 mg of ozone per liter (concentration at time zero [C0]) for 6 min totally eliminated the infectivity of the oocysts for neonatal mice. A level of 2.27 mg of ozone per liter (C0) was necessary to inactivate water containing 5 x 10(5) oocysts per ml within 8 min. Also, 0.4 mg of chlorine dioxide per liter (C0) significantly reduced infectivity within 15 min of contact, although some oocysts remained viable.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Chlorine / pharmacology
  • Chlorine Compounds*
  • Coccidia / drug effects*
  • Cryptosporidiosis / prevention & control
  • Cryptosporidiosis / transmission
  • Cryptosporidium / drug effects*
  • Cryptosporidium / isolation & purification
  • Disinfection / methods*
  • Humans
  • Mice
  • Oxides / pharmacology
  • Ozone / pharmacology
  • Sterilization / methods*
  • Water Microbiology*


  • Chlorine Compounds
  • Oxides
  • Chlorine
  • Ozone
  • chlorine dioxide