Objective: The aim of this systematic review was to assess the role of excess cement as risk indicator for peri-implant diseases.
Material and methods: A systematic literature search with the keywords peri-implant disease, peri-implant mucositis, peri-implantitis, excess cement, cemented, and screw-retained restorations was performed for articles published by June 2016 using MEDLINE and EMBASE electronic databases, complemented by hand searching.
Results: The included 26 publications referring to 21 study groups were published between 1999 and 2016 and comprised 945 subjects with 1010 cemented implant restorations in 10 prospective and eight retrospective studies and eight case reports/series with pronounced heterogeneity of the study designs. Prevalence of peri-implant diseases varied between 1.9% and 75% of the implants with cemented restorations, with proportions of 33-100% associated with excess cement. In publications including early follow-ups and regular recall intervals, peri-implant disease was mostly detected at an early stage. Cofactors, such as type of abutment (standardized or individualized) and cementum medium used, did not have a significant influence, while higher prevalence of peri-implant diseases was found with immediate loading or cementation subsequent to reentry, and with cemented vs. screw-retained restorations.
Conclusions: Excess cement was identified as a possible risk indicator for peri-implant diseases and was more frequently observed with soft tissue healing periods shorter than 4 weeks. To reduce the risk of peri-implant disease associated with excess cement, a crown margin at the level of the mucosal margin providing sufficient access is recommendable, and soft tissue maturation and early follow-ups after restoration placement should be assured.
Keywords: cement excess; implant restoration; peri-implant diseases; peri-implant mucositis; peri-implantitis; review.
© 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.