Excellent analytical and clinical performance of a dry self-sampling device for human papillomavirus detection in an urban Chinese referral population

J Obstet Gynaecol Res. 2016 Dec;42(12):1839-1845. doi: 10.1111/jog.13132. Epub 2016 Sep 20.


Aim: To evaluate the analytical and clinical effectiveness of cervicovaginal self-sampling with a dry sampling device (Evalyn Brush) for high-risk human papillomavirus (hr-HPV) testing and detection of cervical disease.

Methods: The study population consisted of 101 patients from a large gynecological outpatient clinic in Shanghai referred for abnormal cervical screening results and 101 women without cervical lesions. Self-samples obtained in the clinic and physician-collected cervical specimens (reference) were stored at -20 °C for 16-18 weeks and then transferred to 20 ml of ThinPrep medium and tested for hr-HPV using a multiplex real time polymerase chain reaction assay. All women had a colposcopic examination with a Pap smear and directed or random biopsies.

Results: High risk-HPV was detected in 92 patients (45.5%) with the self-collected cervicovaginal specimens and in 93 (46.0%) with the physician-collected cervical specimens, resulting in an agreement of 97.5% and a Kappa of 0.95 (95% confidence interval 0.91-0.99). Among all of the included women, 46 (22.8%) had cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 or worse (cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 3+). Hr-HPV was found in 43 of these patients (93.5%) with self-sampling and in 44 (95.7%) with the physician-collected specimens.

Conclusions: Self-collected dry cervicovaginal samples transferred to ThinPrep medium and tested for hr-HPV using a clinically validated polymerase chain reaction assay showed very good agreement with physician-collected cervical specimens and a very high hr-HPV positivity rate for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 3 +.

Keywords: cervical cancer screening; cervical dysplasia; human papillomavirus; self-sampling.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • China
  • DNA Probes, HPV*
  • Early Detection of Cancer / methods*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Middle Aged
  • Papillomaviridae / genetics
  • Papillomavirus Infections / diagnosis*
  • Papillomavirus Infections / genetics
  • Urban Population
  • Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / virology*
  • Young Adult


  • DNA Probes, HPV