Closing the knowledge gap on cardiovascular disease in type 2 diabetes: the EMPA-REG OUTCOME trial and beyond

Drugs Context. 2016 Sep 2;5:212299. doi: 10.7573/dic.212299. eCollection 2016.


Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is associated with marked cardiovascular (CV) morbidity and mortality, including heart failure (HF). Until recently, an oral glucose-lowering agent that improved hyperglycemia as well as provided CV benefits in patients with T2DM and cardiovascular disease (CVD) was lacking. The newest class of glucose-lowering agents, sodium glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors, includes canagliflozin, dapagliflozin, and empagliflozin. Prior to the release of the LEADER trial results, the recent EMPA-REG OUTCOME study was the only dedicated CV trial to demonstrate a reduction in major adverse cardiac events, CV mortality, and all-cause mortality and a reduction in hospitalization for HF with empagliflozin, given on top of standard-of-care therapy in patients with T2DM and CVD. This paper summarizes the results from EMPA-REG OUTCOME and discusses their significance and clinical implications.

Keywords: cardiovascular disease; empagliflozin; glucose-lowering; heart failure; major adverse cardiovascular events; sodium glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitor; type 2 diabetes mellitus.

Publication types

  • Review