Efficacy and Safety of LixiLan, a Titratable Fixed-Ratio Combination of Insulin Glargine Plus Lixisenatide in Type 2 Diabetes Inadequately Controlled on Basal Insulin and Metformin: The LixiLan-L Randomized Trial

Diabetes Care. 2016 Nov;39(11):1972-1980. doi: 10.2337/dc16-1495. Epub 2016 Sep 20.


Objective: This study was conducted to demonstrate the efficacy and safety of LixiLan (iGlarLixi), a novel, titratable, fixed-ratio combination of insulin glargine (iGlar) (100 units) and lixisenatide, compared with iGlar in patients with type 2 diabetes inadequately controlled on basal insulin with or without up to two oral glucose-lowering agents.

Research design and methods: After a 6-week run-in when iGlar was introduced and/or further titrated, and oral antidiabetic drugs other than metformin were stopped, 736 basal insulin-treated patients (mean diabetes duration 12 years, BMI 31 kg/m2) were randomized 1:1 to open-label, once-daily iGlarLixi or iGlar, both titrated to fasting plasma glucose <100 mg/dL (<5.6 mmol/L) up to a maximum dose of 60 units/day. The primary outcome was change in HbA1c levels at 30 weeks.

Results: HbA1c decreased from 8.5% (69 mmol/mol) to 8.1% (65 mmol/mol) during the run-in period. After randomization, iGlarLixi showed greater reductions in HbA1c from baseline compared with iGlar (-1.1% vs. -0.6%, P < 0.0001), reaching a mean final HbA1c of 6.9% (52 mmol/mol) compared with 7.5% (58 mmol/mol) for iGlar. HbA1c <7.0% (53 mmol/mol) was achieved in 55% of iGlarLixi patients compared with 30% on iGlar. Mean body weight decreased by 0.7 kg with iGlarLixi and increased by 0.7 kg with iGlar (1.4 kg difference, P < 0.0001). Documented symptomatic hypoglycemia (≤70 mg/dL) was comparable between groups. Mild gastrointestinal adverse effects were very low but more frequent with iGlarLixi.

Conclusions: Compared with iGlar, a substantially higher proportion of iGlarLixi-treated patients achieved glycemic targets with a beneficial effect on body weight, no additional risk of hypoglycemia, and low levels of gastrointestinal adverse effects in inadequately controlled, basal insulin-treated, long-standing type 2 diabetes.

Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02058160.

Publication types

  • Multicenter Study
  • Randomized Controlled Trial

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Blood Glucose / metabolism
  • Body Mass Index
  • Body Weight
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / drug therapy*
  • Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
  • Drug Combinations
  • Drug Evaluation, Preclinical
  • Endpoint Determination
  • Female
  • Glycated Hemoglobin A / metabolism
  • Humans
  • Hypoglycemic Agents / administration & dosage*
  • Hypoglycemic Agents / therapeutic use
  • Insulin / therapeutic use
  • Insulin Glargine / administration & dosage
  • Insulin Glargine / therapeutic use*
  • Male
  • Metformin / therapeutic use
  • Middle Aged
  • Peptides / administration & dosage
  • Peptides / therapeutic use*
  • Treatment Outcome


  • Blood Glucose
  • Drug Combinations
  • Glycated Hemoglobin A
  • Hypoglycemic Agents
  • Insulin
  • Peptides
  • Insulin Glargine
  • lixisenatide
  • Metformin

Associated data

  • ClinicalTrials.gov/NCT02058160