High-grade osteosarcomas are the most common primary malignant tumors of bone. With complete surgical resection and multi-agent chemotherapy up to 70% of patients with high-grade osteosarcomas and localized extremity tumors can become long-term survivors. The prognosis, however, is poor for patients with nonresectable, primary metastatic or relapsed disease. Outcome is essentially unchanged for three decades. Herein, we describe selected novel insights into the genomics, biology and immunology of the disease and discuss selected strategies, which hold promise to overcome the current stagnation in the therapeutic success in childhood osteosarcoma.
Keywords: genomics; immunotherapy; novel therapy; orphan disease; osteosarcoma; outcome; pediatrics; sarcoma; targeted therapy.