Albuminuria and masked uncontrolled hypertension in chronic kidney disease

Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2017 Dec 1;32(12):2058-2065. doi: 10.1093/ndt/gfw325.

Abstract

Background: Masked uncontrolled hypertension (MUCH) is associated with greater target organ damage such as left ventricular hypertrophy, increased arterial stiffness and albuminuria. Whether MUCH independently associates with greater cardiovascular end-organ damage or kidney damage is unclear. The objective of this study was to assess the strength of the relationship of MUCH (awake ambulatory blood pressure ≥135/85 mmHg and clinic blood pressure <140/90 mmHg) with target organ damage.

Methods: In a cross-sectional study at a veterans' administration medical center, clinically normotensive veterans without chronic kidney disease (CKD) (n = 29) and 287 patients with CKD and controlled hypertension (CH, n = 193), MUCH (n = 67) and uncontrolled hypertension (UCH, n = 27) had evaluation of target organ damage. Target organ damage was measured by echocardiography [left ventricular mass index (LVMI)], arterial ultrasonography [aortic pulse wave velocity (PWV)] and 24-h urine collection [albuminuria (urine albumin to creatinine ratio)] in all participants.

Results: Compared to that of controls, LVMI was higher by 21.8 g/m2 (CI, 4.0-39.7 g/m2) in CH, 27.9 (CI, 8-47.8) in MUCH and 39.5 (CI, 15.7-63.2) in UCH (P < 0.01 for group differences, P < 0.01 for linear trend). Although differences persisted after adjustment for age, sex and race, they lost significance after adjustments for cardiovascular risk factors and their treatment. Compared to that of controls, PWV was different among CH, MUCH and UCH (P = 0.04 for group differences, P = 0.02 for linear trend). However, differences lost significance after adjustments for age, sex and race. Compared to that of controls, log2 UACR was higher by 2.40 mg/mg (CI, 1.28-3.52) in CH, 4.94 (CI, 3.70-6.18) in MUCH and 6.01 (CI, 4.49-7.53) in UCH (P < 0.0001 for group difference, P < 0.0001 for linear trend). Differences persisted after adjustment for age, sex and race, cardiovascular risk factors and their treatment and cardiovascular disease (P < 0.0001 for group difference, P < 0.0001 for linear trend).

Conclusions: MUCH is more strongly related to albuminuria compared with cardiovascular damage as assessed by left ventricular mass and PWV. A graded and an independent relationship of blood pressure classification status with albuminuria is consistent with the hypothesis that renal mechanisms may be more important than cardiovascular disease in mediating the pathogenesis of MUCH.

Keywords: albuminuria; chronic kidney disease; left ventricular mass; masked hypertension; pulse wave velocity.

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Albuminuria / etiology*
  • Blood Pressure Monitoring, Ambulatory
  • Case-Control Studies
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Echocardiography
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Hypertension / etiology*
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Prospective Studies
  • Pulse Wave Analysis
  • Renal Insufficiency, Chronic / complications*