Marked hyperglycaemia and renal lesions developed rapidly in DBA mice infected with 10 plaque-forming units of the D-variant of encephalomyocarditis virus (EMC-D). Renal alterations were demonstrated in the glomeruli, tubular epithelium and small vessels 2 months after infection. Glomerular changes were characterized by mesangial thickening due to an increase of basement membrane-like material in the mesangial matrix. Nodular glomerular lesions were commonly observed 3 months after infection, whereas distinct thickening of the glomerular basement membrane was rarely seen. Besides these glomerular changes, glycogen inclusions in the distal tubular epithelium and medial degeneration in the arterioles were also noticed. The EMC-D-infected DBA mouse appears to be a useful experimental model for the study of human diabetic nephropathy.