Introduction: The advancement in the telecommunications technology with multi-functional added features in mobile phone, attracts more users of all age group. It is alarming to note that, the mobile phone use has increased amongst children and they are exposed to potentially harmful radiofrequency radiation in their lifetime.
Aim: To investigate the long term exposure of 900 to 1800 MHz radiations emitted from 2G mobile phone in mice hippocampus at histomorphometric level.
Materials and methods: With due approval from institutional animal ethics committee, 36 mice were exposed to 2G mobile phone radiation, 48 minutes per day for a period of 30-180 days. The control group was kept under similar conditions without 2G exposure. Mice were sacrificed and the brain was removed from the first month to six months period. Brain was removed from the cranial cavity and hippocampus region was dissected out carefully and processed for routine histological study. Random serial sections were analysed under microscope for histomorphometric changes. For statistical analysis, independent t-test was used for comparing control and 2G exposed groups.
Results: The mean density of neurons in the hippocampus regions CA1, CA2 and DGDB from first to sixth month was significantly lower in the 2G exposed groups; however, in CA3 and DGVB, the 2G exposed mice showed significantly higher density of neurons. The mean nuclear diameter of neurons in the hippocampus region of CA1, CA2, CA3, DGDB and DGVB from first to sixth months showed lower nuclear diameter in 2G exposed mice.
Conclusion: The long term exposure to 900-1800 MHz frequency radiations emitted from 2G mobile phone could cause significantly reduced neuron density and decreased nuclear diameter in the hippocampus neurons of mice.
Keywords: Brain; Cornu ammonis; Dentate gyrus; Neuronal density; Radiofrequency radiation.
Effect of Radiofrequency Radiation Emitted from 2G and 3G Cell Phone on Developing Liver of Chick Embryo - A Comparative Study.J Clin Diagn Res. 2017 Jul;11(7):AC05-AC09. doi: 10.7860/JCDR/2017/26360.10275. Epub 2017 Jul 1. J Clin Diagn Res. 2017. PMID: 28892876 Free PMC article.
Does exposure to GSM 900 MHz mobile phone radiation affect short-term memory of elementary school students?J Pediatr Neurosci. 2014 May;9(2):121-4. doi: 10.4103/1817-1745.139300. J Pediatr Neurosci. 2014. PMID: 25250064 Free PMC article.
Effects of 900-MHz radiation on the hippocampus and cerebellum of adult rats and attenuation of such effects by folic acid and Boswellia sacra.J Microsc Ultrastruct. 2017 Oct-Dec;5(4):216-224. doi: 10.1016/j.jmau.2017.09.003. Epub 2017 Sep 18. J Microsc Ultrastruct. 2017. PMID: 30023257 Free PMC article.
Looking at the other side of the coin: the search for possible biopositive cognitive effects of the exposure to 900 MHz GSM mobile phone radiofrequency radiation.J Environ Health Sci Eng. 2014 Apr 26;12:75. doi: 10.1186/2052-336X-12-75. eCollection 2014. J Environ Health Sci Eng. 2014. PMID: 24843789 Free PMC article. Review.
Cell phone radiation exposure on brain and associated biological systems.Indian J Exp Biol. 2013 Mar;51(3):187-200. Indian J Exp Biol. 2013. PMID: 23678539 Review.
Cited by 2 articles
Radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation-induced behavioral changes and their possible basis.Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2019 Oct;26(30):30693-30710. doi: 10.1007/s11356-019-06278-5. Epub 2019 Aug 28. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2019. PMID: 31463749 Review.
Ten gigahertz microwave radiation impairs spatial memory, enzymes activity, and histopathology of developing mice brain.Mol Cell Biochem. 2017 Nov;435(1-2):1-13. doi: 10.1007/s11010-017-3051-8. Epub 2017 May 3. Mol Cell Biochem. 2017. PMID: 28470342