Well-Being and Self-Assessment of Change: Secondary Analysis of an RCT That Demonstrated Benefit of Inhaled Lavender and Sleep Hygiene in College Students with Sleep Problems

Explore (NY). Nov-Dec 2016;12(6):427-435. doi: 10.1016/j.explore.2016.08.004. Epub 2016 Aug 18.


Context: Sleep issues are prevalent and affect health and well-being. The aspects of well-being that are impacted by sleep interventions have not been well studied.

Objectives: To investigate the impact of lavender and sleep hygiene (LSH) compared to sleep hygiene (SH) alone on well-being as measured by the Self-assessment of Change questionnaire (SAC) at post-intervention and two-week follow-up, and secondarily to compare the SAC sleep item to results from standardized sleep surveys.

Design: Secondary analysis of a randomized controlled trial (RCT) where one group received a lavender inhalation patch and practiced sleep hygiene (LSH) and the other group received a placebo inhalation patch and practiced sleep hygiene (SH) for five consecutive nights.

Setting: Usual sleep setting.

Participants: Seventy-nine college students with self-reported sleep issues.

Main outcome measures: The SAC was completed at post-intervention and follow-up.

Results: Exploratory analysis showed significantly improved well-being for the LSH group at post-intervention for well-being domains of sleep, energy, and vibrancy (P = .01, .03, and .05, respectively) and an overall trend of improved well-being in comparison to the SH group at post-intervention and follow-up. The SAC sleep item showed a similar pattern of change to the standardized sleep surveys with a statistically significant improvement in sleep for the LSH group at follow-up (P = .02).

Conclusions: Findings demonstrate the positive impact of the lavender intervention on three domains of self-assessed well-being are energy, vibrancy, and sleep. SAC results extend and complement prior findings of improved sleep quality.

Keywords: SAC; aromatherapy; inhaled lavender; self-assessment of change; sleep quality; well-being.

MeSH terms

  • Administration, Inhalation
  • Aromatherapy / methods*
  • Diagnostic Self Evaluation
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Lavandula*
  • Male
  • Mental Health*
  • Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
  • Sleep Hygiene*
  • Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders / psychology
  • Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders / therapy*
  • Students
  • Surveys and Questionnaires
  • Universities
  • Young Adult