Relationship between bone mineral density and dietary intake of β-carotene, vitamin C, zinc and vegetables in postmenopausal Korean women: a cross-sectional study

J Int Med Res. 2016 Oct;44(5):1103-1114. doi: 10.1177/0300060516662402. Epub 2016 Sep 27.


Objective To examine the relationship between nutritional intake and bone mineral density (BMD) in postmenopausal Korean women. Methods Dietary intake was recorded in postmenopausal Korean women using a semiquantitative questionnaire. The frequency of consumption of various food groups and nutrient intake were calculated. BMD T-scores were measured at the lumbar spine, femoral neck and total hip using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Associations between T-scores and dietary intake were analysed using partial correlation coefficients and multiple linear regression analysis. Results A total of 189 postmenopausal women were included in the study. β-Carotene intake was positively correlated with the lumbar spine T-score. Sodium and vitamin C intake were positively associated and folate intake negatively associated with the femoral neck T-score. Sodium, zinc and vitamin C intake were positively correlated and potassium intake was negatively correlated with the total hip T-score. Vegetable intake showed a positive association with the femoral neck and total hip T-scores. Conclusion In postmenopausal Korean women, β-carotene, vitamin C, zinc and sodium intakes were positively associated with bone mass. Furthermore, frequency of vegetable consumption was positively associated with femoral neck and total hip T-scores.

Keywords: Osteoporosis; bone mineral density; food frequency; menopause; nutrients.

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Ascorbic Acid*
  • Bone Density / physiology*
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Diet*
  • Female
  • Femur Neck / physiology
  • Humans
  • Lumbar Vertebrae / physiology
  • Middle Aged
  • Osteoporosis, Postmenopausal / physiopathology*
  • Pelvic Bones / physiology
  • Postmenopause
  • Republic of Korea
  • Surveys and Questionnaires
  • Vegetables*
  • Zinc*
  • beta Carotene*


  • beta Carotene
  • Zinc
  • Ascorbic Acid