Phenolics, antioxidant capacity and bioaccessibility of chicory varieties (Cichorium spp.) grown in Turkey

Food Chem. 2017 Feb 15;217:483-489. doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2016.08.108. Epub 2016 Aug 31.


In this study, the changes in phenolics, anthocyanin, antioxidant capacity, and bioaccessibility of chicory varieties (Cichorium spp.) in Turkey were investigated. A total of 19 phenolic standards were screened in the chicory varieties studied and the most abundant compounds in the samples, extracted with methanol, were phenolic acids, syringic (2.54mg/kg) and trans-ferulic acid (1.85mg/kg), whilst (+)-catechin was the major flavanol. The highest flavanol content using either methanol or ethanol was determined in the green chicory samples (0.62mg/kg). The red chicory variety had higher anthocyanin (12.80mg/kg), and contained more phenolics, extractable (8855.50mg GAE/100g) and hydrolysable (7005.51mg GAE/100g), than the other varieties. Also, the antioxidant capacities in this variety, as measured using the CUPRAC assay (570.54 and 425.14μmol Trolox/g dw, respectively), had a wider range of difference than was found in the other assays used. Total phenolics were more bioaccessible from the white chicory variety (61.48%). However, the bioaccessibility of antioxidants was higher in the green chicory variety.

Keywords: (+)-Catechin (PubChem CID: 9064); Anthocyanins; Bioaccessibility; Chicory; Chlorogenic acid (PubChem CID: 1794427); Gallic acid (PubChem CID: 370); Hesperidin (PubChem CID: 3594); Kaempferol (PubChem CID: 5280863); Myricetin (PubChem CID: 5281672); Naringin (PubChem CID: 442428); Neohesperidin (PubChem CID: 442439); Phenols; Protocatechuic acid (PubChem CID: 72); Quercetin (PubChem CID: 5280343); Resveratrol (PubChem CID: 44154); Rutin hydrate (PubChem CID: 16218542); Syringic acid (PubChem CID: 10742); Vanillic acid (PubChem CID: 8468); p-coumaric acid (PubChem CID: 637542); trans-Ferulic acid (PubChem CID: 445858); trans-caffeic acid (caffeic acid) (PubChem CID: 689043).

MeSH terms

  • Anthocyanins / analysis
  • Antioxidants / analysis*
  • Catechin / analysis
  • Chicory / metabolism*
  • Hydroxybenzoates / analysis
  • Phenols / analysis*
  • Plant Extracts / analysis*
  • Polyphenols / analysis
  • Turkey


  • Anthocyanins
  • Antioxidants
  • Hydroxybenzoates
  • Phenols
  • Plant Extracts
  • Polyphenols
  • Catechin
  • phenolic acid