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Review
. 2018 Apr;189:29-33.
doi: 10.1016/j.clim.2016.09.010. Epub 2016 Sep 21.

An Emerging Role for Eotaxins in Neurodegenerative Disease

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Review

An Emerging Role for Eotaxins in Neurodegenerative Disease

Amanda K Huber et al. Clin Immunol. .

Abstract

Eotaxins are C-C motif chemokines first identified as potent eosinophil chemoattractants. They facilitate eosinophil recruitment to sites of inflammation in response to parasitic infections as well as allergic and autoimmune diseases such as asthma, atopic dermatitis, and inflammatory bowel disease. The eotaxin family currently includes three members: eotaxin-1 (CCL11), eotaxin-2 (CCL24), and eotaxin-3 (CCL26). Despite having only ~30% sequence homology to one another, each was identified based on its ability to bind the chemokine receptor, CCR3. Beyond their role in innate immunity, recent studies have shown that CCL11 and related molecules may directly contribute to degenerative processes in the central nervous system (CNS). CCL11 levels increase in the plasma and cerebrospinal fluid of both mice and humans as part of normal aging. In mice, these increases are associated with declining neurogenesis and impaired cognition and memory. In humans, elevated plasma levels of CCL11 have been observed in Alzheimer's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Huntington's disease, and secondary progressive multiple sclerosis when compared to age-matched, healthy controls. Since CCL11 is capable of crossing the blood-brain barrier of normal mice, it is plausible that eotaxins generated in the periphery may exert physiological and pathological actions in the CNS. Here, we briefly review known functions of eotaxin family members during innate immunity, and then focus on whether and how these molecules might participate in the progression of neurodegenerative diseases.

Keywords: Aging; CCL11; Eotaxin; Multiple sclerosis; Neurodegeneration; Neurogenesis.

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