The severity and site of hypertrophy is important in determining the clinical picture and the natural history of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). We evaluated left ventricular hypertrophy by means of two-dimensional echocardiographic score and score index, and correlated these findings with symptoms, electrovector-cardiographic data, and ventricular arrhythmias. A total of 42 patients with HCM were studied by clinical examination, ECG, VCG, M-mode and 2D echocardiography, and 24-h Holter monitoring. The extent and severity of the hypertrophic process were calculated by a score system. The left ventricle was divided into 11 segments and a hypertrophic score (HS) was given to each segment. A hypertrophy score index (HSI) was also calculated by dividing the number of hypertrophied segments by 13. No correlation was found between symptoms and HS and HSI, nor ECG-VCG abnormalities and HS and HSI. A statistically significant relationship between the severity of ventricular arrhythmias and HS and HSI was found (p less than 0.01). The mechanism responsible for ventricular tachyarrhythmias in severe and diffuse hypertrophy might reside in the high intraventricular pressures which produce or worsen areas of myocardial ischemia.