Purpose: The goal of this study was to investigate the pharmacodynamic effects of co-administration of empagliflozin, a sodium glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitor, with diuretic agents.
Methods: In a randomized, open-label cross-over study, 22 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus received empagliflozin 25 mg for 5 days and either hydrochlorothiazide 25 mg for 4 days followed by hydrochlorothiazide 25 mg plus empagliflozin 25 mg for 5 days, or torasemide 5 mg for 4 days followed by torasemide 5 mg plus empagliflozin 25 mg for 5 days; 20 completed treatment. Food, fluid, and sodium intake were standardized for 3 days before and during treatment.
Findings: At baseline, the median age of the treated patients was 56 years (range, 40-65 years), body mass index was 26.8 kg/m2 (range, 20.1-34.4 kg/m2), fasting plasma glucose was 8.6 mmol/L (range, 6.0-12.9 mmol/L), and glycosylated hemoglobin level was 7.6% (range, 7%-10%). Empagliflozin significantly increased 24-hour urinary glucose excretion and reduced fasting serum glucose levels. These effects were maintained after co-administration with either diuretic. Urinary sodium excretion did not significantly change with empagliflozin or diuretic administration alone, but seemed to increase compared with either diuretic alone when empagliflozin was co-administered with either diuretic. Plasma renin and serum aldosterone levels were unaltered with empagliflozin or torasemide alone, but tended to increase with hydrochlorothiazide alone, and tended to increase when empagliflozin was co-administered with a diuretic compared with either diuretic alone. Urinary volume did not increase with empagliflozin or diuretics alone, but increased when empagliflozin was co-administered with either diuretic.
Implications: Empagliflozin alone for 5 days increased urinary glucose excretion but did not seem to have a relevant impact on urine volume or electrolytes. When empagliflozin was co-administered with a diuretic agent, urinary glucose excretion remained increased, and the renin-angiotensin system was activated. Clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT01276288.
Keywords: diuresis; hydrochlorothiazide; pharmacodynamics; torasemide.
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