Efficacy and Safety of Rituximab Therapy in Neuromyelitis Optica Spectrum Disorders: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

JAMA Neurol. 2016 Nov 1;73(11):1342-1348. doi: 10.1001/jamaneurol.2016.1637.


Importance: Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSDs) are autoimmune astrocytopathies characterized by predominant involvement of the optic nerves and spinal cord. In most patients, an IgG autoantibody binding to astrocytic aquaporin 4, the principal water channel of the central nervous system, is detected. Rituximab, a chimeric monoclonal antibody specific for the CD20 B-lymphocyte surface antigen, has been increasingly adopted as a first-line off-label treatment for patients with NMOSDs.

Objective: To perform a systematic review and a meta-analysis of the efficacy and safety of rituximab use in NMOSDs, considering the potential predictive factors related to patient response to rituximab in this disease.

Evidence review: English-language studies published between January 1, 2000, and July 31, 2015, were searched in the MEDLINE, Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), and clinicaltrials.gov databases. Patient characteristics, outcome measures, treatment regimens, and recorded adverse effects were extracted.

Findings: Forty-six studies were included in the systematic review. Twenty-five studies that included 2 or more patients with NMOSDs treated with rituximab were included in the meta-analysis. Differences in the annualized relapse rate ratio and Expanded Disability Status Scale score before and after rituximab therapy were the main efficacy measures. Safety outcomes included the proportion of deaths, withdrawals because of toxic effects, and adverse effects.

Results: Among 46 studies involving 438 patients (381 female and 56 male [sex was not specified in 1 patient]; mean age at the outset of treatment, 32 years [age range, 2-77 years]), rituximab therapy resulted in a mean (SE) 0.79 (0.15) (95% CI, -1.08 to -0.49) reduction in the mean annualized relapse rate ratio and a mean (SE) 0.64 (0.27) (95% CI, -1.18 to -0.10) reduction in the mean Expanded Disability Status Scale score. A significant correlation was observed between disease duration and the Expanded Disability Status Scale score. Adverse effects were recorded in 114 of 438 (26%) patients treated with rituximab. Specifically, 45 patients (10.3%) experienced infusion-related adverse effects, 40 patients (9.1%) had an infection, 20 patients (4.6%) developed persistent leukopenia, 2 patients (0.5%) were diagnosed as having posterior reversible encephalopathy, and 7 patients (1.6%) died.

Conclusions and relevance: This systematic review and meta-analysis provides evidence that rituximab therapy reduces the frequency of NMOSD relapses and neurological disability in patients with NMOSDs. However, the safety profile suggests caution in prescribing rituximab as a first-line therapy.

Publication types

  • Meta-Analysis
  • Review
  • Systematic Review

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Child
  • Child, Preschool
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Immunologic Factors / adverse effects
  • Immunologic Factors / pharmacology*
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Neuromyelitis Optica / drug therapy*
  • Outcome Assessment, Health Care / statistics & numerical data*
  • Rituximab / adverse effects
  • Rituximab / pharmacology*
  • Young Adult


  • Immunologic Factors
  • Rituximab