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A Wireless 32-Channel Implantable Bidirectional Brain Machine Interface

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A Wireless 32-Channel Implantable Bidirectional Brain Machine Interface

Yi Su et al. Sensors (Basel).

Abstract

All neural information systems (NIS) rely on sensing neural activity to supply commands and control signals for computers, machines and a variety of prosthetic devices. Invasive systems achieve a high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) by eliminating the volume conduction problems caused by tissue and bone. An implantable brain machine interface (BMI) using intracortical electrodes provides excellent detection of a broad range of frequency oscillatory activities through the placement of a sensor in direct contact with cortex. This paper introduces a compact-sized implantable wireless 32-channel bidirectional brain machine interface (BBMI) to be used with freely-moving primates. The system is designed to monitor brain sensorimotor rhythms and present current stimuli with a configurable duration, frequency and amplitude in real time to the brain based on the brain activity report. The battery is charged via a novel ultrasonic wireless power delivery module developed for efficient delivery of power into a deeply-implanted system. The system was successfully tested through bench tests and in vivo tests on a behaving primate to record the local field potential (LFP) oscillation and stimulate the target area at the same time.

Keywords: brain-machine interfaces; implantable biomedical sensor; local field potential; stimulation; wireless sensor networks.

Conflict of interest statement

The authors declare no conflict of interest.

Figures

Figure 1
Figure 1
(a) Implantable bidirectional brain machine interface (BBMI) module in titanium casing with 3D representation. (b) Implantable BBMI module size in comparison with a quarter.
Figure 2
Figure 2
BBMI system block diagram including the implantable BBMI module, receiver dongle and host.
Figure 3
Figure 3
Implantable BBMI module circuit diagram and signal routing among the components.
Figure 4
Figure 4
Experimental setup for the bench test with two input sources.
Figure 5
Figure 5
Current consumption under different system configurations.
Figure 6
Figure 6
(a) Experimental setup for the in vivo test. (b) Implantable BBMI module connection to the Utah Array. (c) Different brain rhythms of the local field potential (LFP) recorded from the Monkey’s motor cortex. (d) Recorded stimulation artifacts.
Figure 7
Figure 7
Averaged pre-stimulus and post-stimulus band power changes compared with the no stimuli baseline power.
Figure 8
Figure 8
(a) First stimulus dB change from the baseline. (b) Last stimulus dB change from the baseline.
Figure 9
Figure 9
Pre-stimulation and post-stimulation power spectrum changes for each frequency band.

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