This study assessed the relationship between diabetes-specific social learning factors and diabetes self-care. Predictor variables were collected within the categories of knowledge (e.g., behavioral demonstrations, pencil-and-paper tests), beliefs/expectations (e.g., self-efficacy, self-motivation), skills (e.g., problem-solving and refusal skills), and environmental support (e.g., barriers to adherence, family support). Different results emerged across the three areas of the regimen assessed: diet, exercise, and glucose testing. Multiple-regression analyses revealed that the social learning variables consistently improved the prediction of self-care beyond that attributable to demographic variables but that the categories of social learning variables most closely related to self-care varied across regimen areas. These findings suggest that programs to enhance diabetes self-care could beneficially focus on life-style behaviors and employ strategies to increase regimen-related expectations and diabetes-specific social and problem-solving skills.