Skip to main page content
Access keys NCBI Homepage MyNCBI Homepage Main Content Main Navigation
Filters applied. Clear all
. 2016 Sep 27;6:34241.
doi: 10.1038/srep34241.

Reproductive Switching Analysis of Daphnia Similoides Between Sexual Female and Parthenogenetic Female by Transcriptome Comparison

Affiliations
Free PMC article

Reproductive Switching Analysis of Daphnia Similoides Between Sexual Female and Parthenogenetic Female by Transcriptome Comparison

Ya-Nan Zhang et al. Sci Rep. .
Free PMC article

Abstract

The water flea Daphnia are planktonic crustaceans commonly found in freshwater environment that can switch their reproduction mode from parthenogenesis to sexual reproduction to adapt to the external environment. As such, Daphnia are great model organisms to study the mechanism of reproductive switching, the underlying mechanism of reproduction and development in cladocerans and other animals. However, little is known about the Daphnia's reproductive behaviour at a molecular level. We constructed a genetic database of the genes expressed in a sexual female (SF) and a parthenogenetic female (PF) of D. similoides using Illumina HiSeq 2500. A total of 1,763 differentially expressed genes (865 up- and 898 down-regulated) were detected in SF. Of the top 30 up-regulated SF unigenes, the top 4 unigenes belonged to the Chitin_bind_4 family. In contrast, of the top down-regulated SF unigenes, the top 3 unigenes belonged to the Vitellogenin_N family. This is the first study to indicate genes that may have a crucial role in reproductive switching of D. similoides, which could be used as candidate genes for further functional studies. Thus, this study provides a rich resource for investigation and elucidation of reproductive switching in D. similoides.

Figures

Figure 1
Figure 1. The photograph of D. similoides female.
Figure 2
Figure 2. Distribution of unigene size in the D. similoides transcriptome assembly.
Figure 3
Figure 3. Percentage of homologous hits of the D. similoides transcripts to other species.
The D. similoides transcripts were searched by Blastx against the non-redundancy protein database with a cutoff E-value 10−5.
Figure 4
Figure 4. Venn diagram of the number of unigenes with reads per kilo bases per million mapped (RPKM) > 0.3 in SF and PF.
SF: sexual female, PF: parthenogenetic female.
Figure 5
Figure 5. Volcano plot of differentially expressed genes in SF and PF.
Differentially expressed genes were selected by q-value < 0.005&|log2 (fold change)|> 1 according the method of Storey et al.. The x-axis shows the fold change in gene expression between SF and PF, and the y-axis shows the statistical significance of the differences. Splashes represent different genes. Blue splashes means genes without significant different expression. Red splashes means significantly up expressed genes. Green splashes means significantly down expressed genes. SF: sexual female, PF: parthenogenetic female, −log10(padj): the corrected p-value.
Figure 6
Figure 6. GO enrichment analysis of differentially expressed genes in SF and PF.
BP: Biological Process, MF: Molecular Function, CC: Cellular Component, SF: sexual female, PF: parthenogenetic female. (A) SF vs PF up-regulated genes; (B) SF vs PF down-regulated genes.
Figure 7
Figure 7. qPCR results of differentially expressed genes in SF and PF.
SF: sexual female, PF: parthenogenetic female. The relative expression level is indicated as mean ± SE (N = 3). “*” Means significant difference between SF and PF (P < 0.05, Student t-test).

Similar articles

See all similar articles

Cited by 4 articles

References

    1. Watanabe H. et al. . Analysis of expressed sequence tags of the water flea Daphnia magna. Genome 48, 606–609, g05-03810.1139/g05-038 (2005). - PubMed
    1. Eads B. D., Andrews J. & Colbourne J. K. Ecological genomics in Daphnia: stress responses and environmental sex determination. Heredity (Edinb) 100, 184–190, 10.1038/sj.hdy.6800999 (2008). - DOI - PubMed
    1. Colbourne J. K. et al. . The ecoresponsive genome of Daphnia pulex. Science 331, 555–561, 10.1126/science.1197761331/6017/555 (2011). - DOI - PMC - PubMed
    1. Hebert P. D. N. Population biology of Daphnia (Crustacea, Daphnidae) Biol. Rev. 53, 387–426 (1978).
    1. Banta A. M. & Brown L. A. Control of sex in cladocera. II. The unstable nature of 618 the excretory products involved in male production Physiol. Zool. 2, 93–98 (1929).
Feedback