Background: For neonates with critical left ventricular outflow tract obstruction (LVOTO), hybrid procedures are an alternative to the Norwood stage 1 procedure. Despite perceived advantages, however, outcomes are not well defined. Therefore, we compared outcomes after stage 1 hybrid and Norwood procedures.
Methods: In a critical LVOTO inception cohort (2005-2014; 20 institutions), a total of 564 neonates underwent stage 1 palliation with the Norwood operation with a modified Blalock-Taussig shunt (NW-BT; n = 232; 41%), Norwood operation with a right ventricle-to-pulmonary artery conduit (NW-RVPA; n = 222; 39%), or a hybrid procedure (n = 110; 20%). Post-stage 1 outcomes were analyzed via competing-risks and parametric hazard analyses and compared among all 564 patients and between patients who underwent propensity-matched hybrid and those who underwent NW-BT/NW-RVPA.
Results: By 6 years after the stage 1 operation, 50% ± 3%, 7% ± 2%, and 4% ± 1% of patients transitioned to Fontan, transplantation, and biventricular repair, respectively, whereas 7% ± 2% were alive without transition and 32% ± 2% died. Risk factors for death without transition included procedure type, smaller ascending aorta, aortic valve atresia, and lower birth weight. Risk-adjusted 4-year survival was better after NW-RVPA than after NW-BT or hybrid (76% vs 60% vs 61%; P < .001). Furthermore, for neonates with lower birth weight (<∼2 kg), an interaction between birth weight and hybrid resulted in a trend toward better survival after hybrid compared with NW-BT or NW-RVPA. For propensity-matched neonates between hybrid and NW-BT (88 pairs), 4-year survival was similar (62% vs 57%; P = .58). For propensity-matched neonates between hybrid and NW-RVPA (81 pairs), 4-year survival was better after NW-RVPA (59% vs 75%; P = .008).
Conclusions: For neonates with critical LVOTO undergoing single-ventricle palliation, NW-RVPA was associated with the best overall survival. Hybrid strategies are not a lower-risk alternative to Norwood operations overall; however, the impact of lower birth weight on survival may be mitigated after hybrid procedures compared with Norwood operations.
Keywords: Norwood; congenital heart disease; critical left ventricular outflow tract obstruction; hybrid; hypoplastic left heart syndrome; single ventricle.
Copyright © 2016 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.