Objective: To compare the performance of screening by soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase 1 (sFlt-1) to placental growth factor (PlGF) ratio > 38 for the prediction of delivery with pre-eclampsia (PE) at < 1 week and < 4 weeks from assessment when the test is carried out at 31-34 vs 35-37 weeks' gestation.
Methods: This was a prospective observational study in women attending a third-trimester ultrasound scan as part of routine pregnancy care; the visit was at 30-34 weeks' gestation in the first phase of the study and at 35-37 weeks in the second phase. Serum sFlt-1 and PlGF were measured and their ratio calculated. We estimated the detection rate (DR) and false-positive rate (FPR) of sFlt-1/PlGF ratio > 38 for predicting delivery with PE at < 1 week and < 4 weeks after assessment and compared the performance of screening when the test was carried out at 31 + 0 to 33 + 6 vs 35 + 0 to 36 + 6 weeks' gestation.
Results: The study population included 8063 singleton pregnancies that were examined at 31-34 weeks and 3703 at 35-37 weeks. Delivery with PE occurred at < 1, < 4 and ≥ 4 weeks from assessment in five (0.1%), 29 (0.4%) and 202 (2.5%) women assessed at 31-34 weeks, respectively, and in seven (0.2%), 39 (1.1%) and 21 (0.6%) of those assessed at 35-37 weeks. In women without PE, the median sFlt-1/PlGF ratio increased with gestational age at screening and a ratio of 38 was just below the 99th percentile at 32 weeks' gestation and just below the 90th percentile at 36 weeks. In the two gestational windows, the DR of PE delivering < 4 weeks from assessment was similar (75.9% (95% CI, 56.5-89.7%) vs 79.5% (95% CI, 63.5-90.7%)), but the FPR was substantially lower at 31-34 weeks than at 35-37 weeks (1.7% (95% CI, 1.4-2.0%) vs 9.6% (95% CI, 8.7-10.6%)). The number of cases with PE delivering < 1 week from assessment was small, but similarly, in the two gestational windows, the DR was comparable (80.0% (95% CI, 28.4-99.5%) vs 85.7% (95% CI, 42.1-99.6%)), and the FPR was substantially lower at 31-34 weeks than at 35-37 weeks (1.9% (95% CI, 1.6-2.2%) vs 10.2% (95% CI, 9.3-11.3%)).
Conclusion: The performance of sFlt-1/PlGF ratio > 38 in the prediction of delivery with PE at < 1 and < 4 weeks from assessment is substantially different when the assessment is at 31-34 weeks' gestation compared to at 35-37 weeks. Copyright © 2016 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Keywords: placental growth factor; pre-eclampsia; pyramid of antenatal care; soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1.
Copyright © 2016 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.