Calcium ions play a key role in many aspects of neuronal behavior and certain calcium binding proteins that may influence this behavior are differentially distributed in the central nervous system. In this study it is shown that immunoreactivity for calbindin-28 and for parvalbumin is localized in separate populations of inhibitory GABA interneurons in all areas of the neocortex of Old World monkeys. Virtually all GABA neurons show immunoreactivity for one or other calcium binding protein but, except for a few cells in layer IV, GABA cells do not show immunoreactivity for both proteins. Among the two cell populations, parvalbumin immunoreactivity characterizes basket neurons while calbindin immunoreactivity characterizes double bouquet neurons. These findings suggest that the two GABA cell types differ in their regulation of calcium homeostasis and may yield clues to their different roles in intracortical circuitry.