Repletion of vitamin D associated with deterioration of sleep quality among postmenopausal women

Prev Med. 2016 Dec:93:166-170. doi: 10.1016/j.ypmed.2016.09.035. Epub 2016 Sep 28.


Reduced health-related quality of life (HRQOL), depressive symptoms and poor sleep quality are important health issues among postmenopausal women and may be associated with low vitamin D status. Overweight postmenopausal women, with serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] 10-32ng/m, were recruited in Seattle, WA (2010-2012) and randomly assigned to 12months of weight loss +2000IU oral vitamin D3/day or weight loss+daily placebo. The weight-loss program included a reduced-calorie diet and 225min/week of moderate-to-vigorous aerobic activity. Eight subscales of HRQOL were assessed by the MOS 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Brief Symptom Inventory-18, and sleep quality was assessed using the Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). Mean 12-month changes in HRQOL, depressive symptoms and sleep quality were compared between groups (intent-to-treat) using generalized estimating equations. Compared to placebo, women receiving vitamin D did not experience any significant change in depressive symptoms (p=0.78), HRQOL subscales (all p>0.05), or overall sleep quality (p=0.21). However, a greater magnitude of change in serum 25(OH)D was associated with an increased need to take medications to sleep (ptrend=0.01) and overall worse sleep quality (ptrend<0.01). Women who became vitamin D replete (≥32ng/mL) also showed a deterioration in total PSQI sleep quality score compared to women who remained <32ng/mL despite supplementation, even after adjusting for relevant covariates (Non-Replete: -5.7% vs. Replete: +6.2%, p<0.01). Vitamin D supplementation of 2000IU/d may result in overall worse sleep quality for postmenopausal women with low circulating vitamin D undergoing weight loss.

Trial registration: NCT01240213.

Keywords: 25-Hydroxyvitamin D; Caloric restriction; Depression; Exercise; Quality of life; Sleep.

Publication types

  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

MeSH terms

  • Depression / psychology
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Postmenopause / blood*
  • Quality of Life / psychology*
  • Sleep Wake Disorders / psychology*
  • Vitamin D Deficiency / blood
  • Vitamin D Deficiency / complications*
  • Vitamin D Deficiency / drug therapy
  • Washington
  • Weight Loss / drug effects

Associated data