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Comparative Study
, 64, 52-62

Job Control, Work-Family Balance and Nurses' Intention to Leave Their Profession and Organization: A Comparative Cross-Sectional Survey

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Comparative Study

Job Control, Work-Family Balance and Nurses' Intention to Leave Their Profession and Organization: A Comparative Cross-Sectional Survey

Yoshiko Yamaguchi et al. Int J Nurs Stud.

Abstract

Background: The shortage of nurses is a problem in many countries. In Japan, the distribution of nurses across different care settings is uneven: the shortage of nurses in home healthcare and nursing homes is more serious than in hospitals. Earlier research has identified numerous factors affecting nurses' intention to leave work (e.g., job control, family-related variables, work-family conflict); however, these factors' levels and effect size may vary between nurses in hospitals, home healthcare, and nursing homes.

Objectives: This study measured job control, family-related variables, and work-family conflict among nurses in hospitals, home healthcare, and nursing homes, and compared these variables' levels and effect size on nurses' intention to leave their organization or profession between these care settings.

Design: The research design was cross-sectional.

Methods: Participating nurses from hospitals, home healthcare facilities, and nursing homes self-administered an anonymous questionnaire survey; nurses were recruited from the Kyushu district of Japan. Nurses from nine hospitals, 86 home healthcare offices, and 107 nursing homes participated. We measured nurses' intention to leave nursing or their organization, perceived job control, family variables and work-family conflict. We analyzed 1461 participants (response rate: 81.7%).

Results: The level of job control, family variables, and work-family conflict affecting nurses varied between hospitals, home healthcare, and nursing homes; additionally, these variables' effect on nurses' intention to leave their organization or profession varied between these care settings. Work-family conflict, family variables, and job control most strongly predicted nurses' intention to leave their organization or profession in hospitals, home healthcare, and nursing homes, respectively.

Conclusions: Interventions aiming to increase nurse retention should distinguish between care settings. Regarding hospitals, reducing nurses' work-family conflict will increase nurse retention. Regarding home healthcare, allowing nurses to fulfill family responsibilities will increase nurse retention. Regarding nursing home nurses, increasing nurses' job control will increase nurse retention.

Keywords: Family variables; Home healthcare nurses; Hospital nurses; Intention to leave organization; Intention to leave profession; Job control; Nursing home nurses; Work-family conflict.

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