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, 220 (Pt A), 354-363

Decreased Vaccine Antibody Titers Following Exposure to Multiple Metals and Metalloids in E-Waste-Exposed Preschool Children

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Decreased Vaccine Antibody Titers Following Exposure to Multiple Metals and Metalloids in E-Waste-Exposed Preschool Children

Xinjiang Lin et al. Environ Pollut.

Abstract

We explored acquired immunity resulting from vaccination in 3 to 7-year-old children, chronically exposed to multiple heavy metals and metalloids, in an e-waste recycling area (Guiyu, China). Child blood levels of ten heavy metals and metalloids, including lead (Pb), arsenic (As), mercury (Hg), chromium (Cr), cadmium (Cd), manganese (Mn), nickel (Ni), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn) and selenium (Se), and seven vaccine antibodies (diphtheria, pertussis, tetanus, hepatitis B, Japanese encephalitis, polio, measles) were measured. The exposed group had higher levels of blood Pb, Mn, Cu, Zn and Cr compared to the reference group (P < 0.05). Levels of all vaccine antibodies in the exposed group were significantly lower than in the reference group (P < 0.01). All vaccine antibodies negatively correlated with blood concentrations of Cu, Zn and Pb, based on spearman rank correlation analysis. Multiple logistic regression and univariate analyses identified the location of residence (Guiyu), high blood Pb (>10 μg/dL) and high blood Cu and Zn (upper median value of each group) to be inversely associated with seven antibody titers. Antibody titers increased with age, BMI, high blood Mn (>15 μg/L), and high blood Cd and Ni (upper median value of each group). Results suggest multiple heavy metal and metalloid exposure, especially to Pb, Zn and Cu, may be a risk factor inhibiting the development of child immunity, resulting in decreased child antibody levels against vaccines.

Keywords: Electronic waste; Metalloids; Metals; Preschool children; Vaccine antibodies.

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