Maintenance dialysis patients experience a high burden of physical and emotional symptoms that directly affect their quality of life and health care utilization. In this review, we specifically highlight common troublesome symptoms affecting dialysis patients: insomnia, restless legs syndrome, and uremic pruritus. Epidemiology, pathophysiology, and evidence-based current treatment are reviewed with the goal of providing a guide for diagnosis and treatment. Finally, we identify multiple additional areas of further study needed to improve symptom management in dialysis patients.
Keywords: Sleep disorders; chronic renal failure; dialysis; end-stage renal disease (ESRD); insomnia; kidney disease; quality of life (QoL); restless legs syndrome; review; symptom management; symptoms; uremic pruritus.
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